Planned or Under Review Analyses:

Use Site as Unit of Analysis Data:

  1. This analysis addresses the question: when someone searches the Internet for websites on 20 different topics, what do they find? How much is commercial, how much is educational, and how much is action-oriented, etc.?
  1. Using longitudinal data, this analysis will revisit findings from Earl et al. (2010) to determine whether those findings hold across time. It also particularly examines movements that are high and low users of different forms of Internet activism.
  1. Using external data on the popularity of websites and their position in search results, this analysis examines whether SMO-affiliation and other markers of production resources influence popularity. Alternative hypotheses about what drives popularity will include out-links and forms of action available on the website (from the provinfo series and protest action indicators).
  1. This analysis uses data on online protest to understand how online protest is clustered by issue industry. It uses data on protdum, srchclm, and cause to trace the composition of different industries.
  1. Using data on the spread of causes across issue areas, this analysis examines the methodological feasibility of inductively detecting examples of issue spillover from movement to movement in hopes of using big data analytics to uncover enough instances of spillover to allow for statistical analyses of its antecedents. Primary variables include cause, news cause, search claim, and protest indicators. A follow-up analysis builds on these methodological advances to model the predictors of issue spillover.
  1. This analysis traces the composition of issue industries and sectors based on the types of sites offered (e.g., examining the protdum variable) to examine the extent to which movement actors are primary actors in various debates. It also examines which other actors appear frequently in issue debates, such as government actors, commercial vendors, etc.
  1. This analysis uses data on SMO and movement affiliation to understand the organizational infrastructure of online protest sites and its effects on online activities. The analysis probes for systematic differences between websites sponsored by SMOs versus those that are not, particularly those created by individuals, and in the kinds and numbers of protest actions offered and how these trends and relationships may have shifted over time.
  1. This analysis examines negative mentions of SMOs on advocacy-oriented websites, looking at movement affiliation, political orientation, movement affiliation, causes and site producer. 
  1. This analysis compares the causes and news causes on protest-oriented and non-protest oriented websites related to women’s and feminist movements.  It evaluates changes in the proportion of protest-oriented and non-protest oriented websites and differences in the content between the types of sites for women’s and feminist movement websites over the 5 years of the project.
  1. This analysis examines the co-occurence of women's movement claims with other claims and of the frequency of women's movement claims outside the women's movement issue area compared to frequency of other popular claims.

Use Both Site and Tactic Data:

  1. This analysis merges data on the number of websites and targets making specific claims and falling into distinct movements with data on offline media coverage of the same topics to understand how media and protest fields are constructed online and offline.
  1. This analysis uses data on the frequency of SMO-affiliation and the rates of online activism (including specific forms of activism) and offline activism across sub-sets of causes to compare to studies covering similar movements to determine to what extent methodological artifacts might be present in either this or other data.
  1. This analysis uses site and tactic URLs to identify sites or tactics hosted by professional website providers. Using those data, it will test whether usage of such contractors is heavily slanted toward pre-existing SMOs such that websites are more likely to be run by for-profit contractors when the site is owned by a preexisting SMO, particularly a large, membership-based, formal SMO.

Use Tactic as Unit of Analysis Data:

  1. This analysis will model whether the prior year's rate of online tactics adoption is a strong predictor of diffusion in the next year such that rising adoption rates drive more and more diffusion over time net of other factors that might drive diffusion.
  1. This analysis investigates whether a larger percentage of sites offer online protest opportunities that are semi- or fully-automated protest formats over time.
  1. This analysis will test the hypothesis that there are efficiencies in the production of tactics when the same tactic is employed online and offline, leading to websites that offer similar kinds of online and offline protest opportunities.
  1. Using data on the causes, targets, and characteristics of protest actions (e.g., virtual, autotask, start and update dates, etc.) of protest actions against corporate targets, this analysis examines the impacts of protest against corporate targets.
  1. This analysis compares the counts, participation in, diversity of types, and content of online and offline tactics, with focus on tactics that include cultural performance, in the women’s and feminist movements and lesbian and gay movements.
  1. This analysis examines the target types and levels of women's movement protest actions with attention to change over time and variation in extent to which takes place online.